- Biomolecules || Chemistry || +2
- Standard Free energy Change || chemistry || +2
- Third Law of Thermodynamics || Chemistry || +2
- Second Law of Thermodynamics || Chemistry || +2
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- Hess’s Law Of Constant Heat summation || Chemistry || +2
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- Factor Determining Real Wages || Concept of Wages || +2
- The Criticism of The Risk Theory of Profit || Concept of Profit || +2
- The Risk Theory of Profit || Concept of Profit || +2
- The Meaning of Profit || Concept of Profit || +2
- The Criticism of The Classical Theory of Interest || Interest || +2
- The Classical Theory of Interest || Interest || +2
- Meaning of Interest || Concept of Interest || +2
- Wage Fund Theory of Wages || Concept of Wage || +2
- The Criticism of The Subsistence Theory of Wage || Concept of Wage || +2
- Orested Discovery || Magnetic field || Online Notes Nepal
- Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux || Magnetic field || +2
- Torque on rectangular coil in a magnetic field || Magnetic field || +2
- Moving coil Galvanometer || Magnetic field || +2
- Magnetic Field due to Straight Current carrying Conductor || Application of Biot-Savart Law || +2
- Magnetic field along axis of solenoid || Application of Biot-Savart Law || +2
- Magnetic Field due to Toroid || Application of Biot-Savart Law || +2
- Ampere’s Law || Application of Biot-Savart Law || +2
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Biomolecules || Chemistry || +2
Bio-molecules are the organic compounds that form the basis of life, i.e., they build up the living system and responsible for their growth and maintenance. A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ion present in organisms that are essential to one or more typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis or development Bio-molecules include large macromolecules (or poly-anions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolic, secondary metabolic and natural products. A more general name for this class of material is biological materials. Biomolecules are usually endogenous, produced within the organism but organisms usually need exogenous biomolecules, for example, certain nutrients to survive. The sequence that relates molecules to a living organism is
Bio-molecules → Organelles → Cells → Tissues → Organs → Living organism.
Optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses) or compounds which on hydrolysis give these units are known as carbohydrates. They are also called saccharides
(Latin Saccharum = sugar) due to the sweet taste of simpler members.
Depending upon their behaviour towards hydrolysis, carbohydrates can be of following three types
These cannot be hydrolyzed to simpler molecules and further subdivided into tetroses, pentoses or hexoses depending upon the number of carbon atoms. These are also called homopolysaccharides.
- Aldotetroses Erythrose, Threose
- Aldopentoses Xylose, Ribose,
- Aldohexoses Glucose, Galactose,
- Ketohexoses Fructose
All naturally occurring monosaccharides belong to D-series.
Killian synthesis is used to convert an aldose into the next higher aldose.
(Greek oligos = few). On hydrolysis, they generally give two to nine monosaccharides (same or different) and are further classified as, e.g., sucrose, maltose, lactose, trisaccharides and so on. C12H22O11 is a disaccharide because it gives two monosaccharides.
The bond formed between two monosaccharides is called a glycosidic bond and normally it is (1, 4) bond.
Sucrose is most abundant in plants and known as cane sugar or table sugar or invert sugar as an equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose is obtained by hydrolysis of sucrose.
Trisaccharides Raffinose (C18H32O16)
These are polymers of monosaccharides. Examples are starch, cellulose, glycogen, etc.
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